Goal achievement: The role of intentions

Citation: Gollwitzer, P. M. (1993). Goal achievement: The role of intentions. European review of social psychology, 4(1), 141-185. Peter Gollwitzer Peter Gollwitzer Professor of Psychology, NYU (US) & Universität Konstanz (Germany) Social Psychology & Motivation Abstract: “The intention-to-behavior process is analyzed with respect to implementation intentions. These intentions link an intended goal-directed behavior to an anticipated situational context. The reported experimental evidence suggests that implementation intentions create a heightened accessibility of the mental representation of the specified situational cues and induce direct (automatic) control of the intended behavior through these cues. The formation of implementation intentions promotes goal achievement through both of these processes because they eliminate classic problems associated with the control of goal-directed action. Similarities and differences to other theoretical approaches on intentions, planning, and action control are discussed.” Key words: goal achievements, goal intention, implementation intentions, Metal contrasting, indulging Key Points and Reflection Gollwitzer and at all.’s work on goal achievement could be used for how to untangle individual and interpersonal tangles. Interpersonal tangles can turn in to systemic, leadership and organizational tangles because when one can’t accomplish their goals or if they overpromise without proper mental contrasting, it affects organizational accountability. When goals are not achieved, because of the interdependency of organizational work, depending on the importance of the task in the task chain, unachieved goals might make a domino effect and can turn into a strangle tangle. How can we ensure in an organization that desirable and feasible goals are being effectively implemented? One approach could be at an individual level; coaching and supporting individuals change their patterns that are preventing them from attaining their goals. What prevents one from accomplishing their goals may vary person to...

Collective action control by goals and plans: Applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

Citation: Wieber, F., Thürmer, J. L., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2012). Collective action control by goals and plans: Applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance. The American journal of psychology, 125(3), 275-290. Marcia, please see abstract. Could an intention-behavior gap be similar to a tangle definition? The group is failing to act on their intention despite their commitment to the collective goal. Abstract “In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention–behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if–then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.” (p. 275) Key words: group performance, implementation intentions, Marjorie Shaw, hidden profile situations Key Points In an experiment from Shaw (1932) groups and individuals were asked to solve a riddle. “Shaw found that groups solved more riddles than individuals” (p.276) Implementation intentions works for goal attainment not only for individuals (Gollwitzer, 1993) but also for groups. Implementation intentions...